Veterinary Physiology

Introduction to Blood;Properties of blood as a body fluid, metabolism and fate of R.B.C;Hemoglobin-chemical structure, synthesis, physiological functions, derivatives of hemoglobin;Heart- morphological characteristic, systemic excitability conduction and transmission processes.
Cardiac Cycle: Regulation of cardiac output; coronary circulation; properties of pulse; metabolism and energetic of working myocardial cell, extrinsic and intrinsic regulation;
Electro Cardio Graph and its significance in Veterinary Sciences – Echocardiography. Haemorrhage haemostasis.
Haemodynamics of circulation, circulatory mechanics, resistance to flow, vasoconstriction, nervous and circulating fluid volume controls of blood pressure, neurohormonal control of vascular smooth muscle. Circulatory
controls- shock stresses, regional and fetal circulation. Capillary exchange, control of blood pressure.
Adjustment of circulation during exercise.
Muscle Physiology-basic muscle unit characteristic-electrical phenomenon in muscle cell – muscle action potential, excitation and propagation of impulse characteristics- latent period refractive ness, threshold level-all and none characteristics – contractile mechanism – excitation – contraction coupling-neuro-muscular transmission, types of muscle contraction,phenomenon of fatigue, rigor mortis.
Organization of nervous system- Mechanism of information processing, hierarchical control.Major function system- sensory, consciousness, emotion, motor and visceral control and basic functional unit – neuron structure, type- functional characteristics of sub-units of neuron. Membrane potential – ionic basis of resting membrane potential (RMP) nerve action potential,excitation and propagation of impulse characteristics- latent period- refractive-ness, threshold level-all and none characteristics. Degeneration and regeneration of nerve fibre. Synaptic and junctional transmission.
Functions of nervous system-reflexes-control of posture and movements, autonomic nervous system and visceral control. Neurotransmitter wakefulness, sleep cycle. Higher function of neurons system – learning,
memory, electroencephalography.
Sense organs and receptors physiology of special senses – Eye: functional
morphology, nourishment and protection neural pathway, receptors-  optics, ocular muscles and movements, photochemistry, Vision defects Ear: Physiology of hearing and common hearing impairment. Vestibule apparatus. Physiology of olfaction and taste.
Morphological characteristic of mono gastric and poly gastric digestive system. Prehension,rumination; defecation; vomition; regulation of secretory function of saliva, stomach, intestine, pancreas;bile secretion; hunger, appetite control, developmental aspects of digestion; luminous, membranous andmicrobial digestion in rumen and intestine; permeability characteristics of intestine, forces governing absorption, control intestinal transport of electrolyte and water, enzymatic digestion in monogastric and
fermentative digestion in rumen, modification of toxic substances in rumen.Digestion in birds.
Functional morphology of respiratory apparatus. Mechanics of breathing. Transport of blood gases, foetal and neonatal oxygen transport, dissociation curves, pressures, recoil tendency,elasticity,surfactants,pleural liquid, compliance, exchanges of gases in lungs and tissues, neural and chemical regulation of breathing, diffusion, perfusion, hypoxia. Frictional resistance to air flow, airways smooth muscle contraction, respiratory muscle work, panting, adaptation of respiration during muscle exercise, high altitude hypoxia, Non-respiratory lung functions. Respiration in birds.
Kidney- Functional morphology of nephrons, factors determining filtration pressure, determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow – Re-absorption mechanisms for glucose, protein,amino acids,electrolytes; ammonium mechanism, glomerulo-tubular balance,methods of studying renal functions; urine concentration;micturition, uremia. Fluid, water balance, fluid therapy, dehydration, water concentration mechanisms. Acid base balance and H+ regulation, correction and evolution of imbalances,total osmotic pressure. Formation and excretion of urine of Birds.
Cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluids -composition, formation and flow; Joints. Regulation of bone metabolism and homeostasis.
Hormone cell interaction, sub-cellular mechanisms-metabolism of hormones-methods of study of endocrine system;
Receptors- mechanism of regulation; Chemistry of hypothalamo- hypophyseal hormones, target organ,pineal, thyroid, thymus, pancreas, adrenal, prostaglandins, hormones of calcium metabolism, disorders,
rennin-angiotensin system, atrial natriuretic factors, erythropoietin, GI hormones, pheromones.
Genetic and endocrine control of gonadal development, modification of gonadotrophin release,ovarian functions,follicular development, dynamics, endocrine and receptor profiles, sexual receptivity,ovarian cycle, post-partum ovarian activity, ovum transport, capacitation, fertilization, reproductive cycles in farm animals- hormones present in the biological fluids during pregnancy and their uses for the diagnosis of pregnancy- maternal foetal placental participation in pregnancy and parturition, immunology of gestation, preparturient endocrine status. Spermatogenic cycle and wave- function of sertoli cell-leydig cell-semen – composition- evaluation; Testosterone – function and regulation – cryptorchidism. Puberty -photoperiod – uses of androgens, progestogens, estrogens. Functional and metabolic organization of mammary glands – structure and development; effect of estrogens and progesterone; hormonal control
of mammary growth; lactogenesis and galctogenesis; biosynthesis of milk constituents- secretion of milk, and metabolism, prolactin and lactation cycle. Biochemical and genetic determinants of growth,regulation of growth, metabolic and hormone interactions, factors affecting efficiency of growth and production in ruminants and single stomach animals. Growth in meat producing animals and birds, growth curves. Recombinant gene transfer technologies for growth manipulation- advantages and limitations. Protein deposition in animals and poultry. Heat balance, heat tolerance, hypothermia, hyperthermia, thermo-regulation in farm animals, role of skin, responses of animals to heat and cold,fever, body temperature and hibernation. Temperature regulation in birds. Climatology- various parameters and their importance. Effect of different environmental variables like temperature, humidity, light,radiation, altitude on animal performance. Acclimation, acclimatization – general adaptive syndrome.
Clinical aspects of endocrine – reproductive functions, circadian rhythm. Neurophysiology of behaviours, types of behaviour, communication, Learning and memory behavioural plasticity.

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